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In thinking about education, it’s assumed that the reader might not have much background in the area.

A couple of things that are useful to be familiar with include:


Against the general pattern of dismal results, there have been a few examples of individuals and institutions that have achieved success:

  • Jaime Escalante a public school teacher was able to establish a calculus program among barrio students in East Los Angeles. He became nationally famous through the film “Stand & Deliver” (1989). Two years later conditions had deteriorated such that he left the Los Angeles school system.

  • Elmont Memorial High School, a middle school, high school that overcame a classic “changing neighborhood” transition to maintain academic standards.

  • Success Academy Charter Schools, starting in Harlem this charter school system, despite consistent opposition from mainstream educators, has enabled under-represented minority students to outperform their mainstream counterparts


On the sports side, there have been notable successes in schools being established by NBA players and in one case, by a franchise.


Against a prevailing attitude that nothing can be done, these individuals and institutions have managed to achieve a degree of success that can serve as a template for further advances.

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